Description of Registrant’s Securities Registered
Pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934
The following description of capital stock of PureCycle Technologies, Inc. (the “Company”, “PCT”, “we”, “our” and “us”) is intended as a summary only and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (“Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation”) and Amended and Restated Bylaws (“Amended and Restated Bylaws”), which are filed as Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K of which this Exhibit 4.1 is a part. We encourage you to read these documents and the applicable portion of the Delaware General Corporation Law, as amended (the “DGCL”) and our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws carefully and in their entirety because they describe your rights as a holder of shares of our Common Stock.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 250,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Common Stock”), and 25,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.
Holders of the Company’s Common Stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. The holders of the Company’s Common Stock do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Upon the Company’s liquidation, dissolution or winding up and after payment in full of all amounts required to be paid to creditors and to the holders of preferred stock having liquidation preferences, if any, the holders of the Company’s Common Stock will be entitled to receive pro rata the Company’s remaining assets available for distribution. Holders of the Company’s Common Stock do not have preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The Company’s Common Stock will not be subject to further calls or assessment by the Company. There will be no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the Company’s Common Stock. All shares of the Company’s Common Stock that are outstanding are fully paid and non-assessable. The rights, powers, preferences and privileges of holders of the Company’s Common Stock will be subject to those of the holders of any shares of the Company’s preferred stock the Company may authorize and issue in the future.
When a quorum is present at any meeting, any matter other than the election of directors to be voted upon by the stockholders at such meeting will be decided by a majority vote of the holders of shares of capital stock present or represented at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively on such matter. At all meetings of stockholders for the election of directors at which a quorum is present, a plurality of the votes cast will be sufficient to elect such directors.
The Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation authorizes the Company’s board of directors to establish one or more series of preferred stock. Unless required by law or by the Nasdaq Capital Market (“NASDAQ”), the authorized shares of preferred stock will be available for issuance without further action by you. The Company’s board of directors is authorized to fix from time to time before issuance the number of preferred shares to be included in any such series and the designation, powers, preferences and relative participating, optional or other rights, if any, and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof. The authority of the Company’s board of directors with respect to each such series will include, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the determination of any or all of the following:
•the number of shares of any series and the designation to distinguish the shares of such series from the shares of all other series;
•the voting powers, if any, and whether such voting powers are full or limited in such series;
•the redemption provisions, if any, applicable to such series, including the redemption price or prices to be paid;
•whether dividends, if any, will be cumulative or noncumulative, the dividend rate of such series, and the dates and preferences of dividends on such series;
•the rights of such series upon the voluntary or involuntary dissolution of, or upon any distribution of the assets of, the Company;
•the provisions, if any, pursuant to which the shares of such series are convertible into, or exchangeable for, shares of any other class or classes or of any other series of the same or any other class or classes of stock, or any other security, of the Company or any other corporation or other entity, and the rates or other determinants of conversion or exchange applicable thereto;
•the right, if any, to subscribe for or to purchase any securities of the Company or any other corporation or other entity;
•the provisions, if any, of a sinking fund applicable to such series; and
•any other relative, participating, optional, or other special powers, preferences or rights and qualifications, limitations, or restrictions thereof;
•all as may be determined from time to time by the Company’s board of directors and stated or expressed in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issuance of such preferred stock (collectively, a “Preferred Stock Designation”).
The Company could issue a series of preferred stock that could, depending on the terms of the series, impede or discourage an acquisition attempt or other transaction that some, or a majority, of the holders of the Company’s Common Stock might believe to be in their best interests or in which the holders of the Company’s Common Stock might receive a premium for their Company Common Stock over its market price. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may adversely affect the rights of holders of the Company’s Common Stock by restricting dividends on the Company’s Common Stock, diluting the voting power of the Company’s Common Stock or subordinating the liquidation rights of the Company’s Common Stock. As a result of these or other factors, the issuance of preferred stock could have an adverse impact on the market price of the Company’s Common Stock. The Company has no current plans to issue any series of preferred stock.
As of December 31, 2021, we had [5,872,940] warrants issued and outstanding (the “Warrants”). Pursuant to the Warrant Agreement (as defined below), a warrantholder may exercise its Warrants only for a whole number of shares of Common Stock. This means that only a whole Warrant may be exercised at any given time by a warrantholder. No fractional Warrants were issued upon separation of the Units (as defined below) and only whole Warrants trade on NASDAQ. Each Warrant become exercisable on May 4, 2021 and will expire five years after the completion of the Business Combination (as defined in the Merger Agreement), or earlier upon redemption. The shares of Company Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants have been registered under the Company’s registration statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-251034), which was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 1, 2021.
The outstanding Warrants may be called for redemption, in whole and not in part, at a price of $.01 per Warrant:
•at any time after the Warrants become exercisable,
•upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption to each Warrant holder,
•if, and only if, the reported last sale price of the shares of Common Stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share, for any 20 trading days within a 30-day trading period commencing after the Warrants become exercisable and ending on the third business day prior to the notice of redemption to Warrant holders, and
•if, and only if, there is a current registration statement in effect with respect to the shares of Common Stock underlying such Warrants at the time of redemption and for the entire 30-day trading period referred to above and continuing each day thereafter until the date of redemption.
The right to exercise will be forfeited unless the Warrants are exercised prior to the date specified in the notice of redemption. On and after the redemption date, a record holder of a Warrant will have no further rights except to receive the redemption price for such holder’s Warrant upon surrender of such Warrant.
The redemption criteria for the Warrants have been established at a price which is intended to provide Warrant holders a reasonable premium to the initial exercise price and provide a sufficient differential between the then-prevailing share price and the Warrant exercise price so that if the share price declines as a result of a redemption call, the redemption will not cause the share price to drop below the exercise price of the Warrants.
If the Warrants are called for redemption as described above, management will have the option to require all holders that wish to exercise Warrants to do so on a “cashless basis.” In such event, each holder would pay the exercise price by surrendering the Warrants for that number of shares of Common Stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of shares of Common Stock underlying the Warrants, multiplied by the difference between the exercise price of the Warrants and the “fair market value” (defined below) by (y) the fair market value. The “fair market value” for this purpose shall mean the average reported last sale price of the Common Stock for the 10 trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of Warrants. Whether we will exercise our option to require all holders to exercise their Warrants on a “cashless basis” will depend on a variety of factors including the price of the Common Stock at the time the Warrants are called for redemption, ongoing cash needs at such time and concerns regarding dilutive share issuances.
The Warrants have been issued in registered form under a warrant agreement (the “Warrant Agreement”) between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent, and Roth CH Acquisition I Co. (“ROCH”). The Warrant Agreement provides that the terms of the Warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval, by written consent or vote, of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding Warrants in order to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders.
The exercise price and number of shares of common stock issuable on exercise of the Warrants may be adjusted in certain circumstances including in the event of a share dividend, extraordinary dividend or recapitalization, reorganization, merger or consolidation. However, the Warrants will not be adjusted for issuances of shares of Common Stock at a price below the applicable exercise price.
The Warrants may be exercised upon surrender of the Warrant certificate on or prior to the expiration date at the offices of the warrant agent, with the exercise form on the reverse side of the Warrant certificate completed and executed as indicated, accompanied by full payment of the exercise price, by certified or official bank check, for the number of Warrants being exercised. The Warrant holders do not have the rights or privileges of holders of shares of
Common Stock and any voting rights until they exercise their warrants and receive shares of common stock. After the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of the Warrants, each holder will be entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted on by stockholders.
Warrant holders may elect to be subject to a restriction on the exercise of their Warrants such that an electing Warrant holder would not be able to exercise their Warrants to the extent that, after giving effect to such exercise, such holder would beneficially own in excess of 9.9% of the shares of Common Stock outstanding.
No fractional shares will be issued upon exercise of the Warrants. If, upon exercise of the Warrants, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share, upon exercise, the number of shares of Common Stock to be issued to the Warrant holder will be rounded down to the nearest whole number.
As of December 31, 2021, we had [62,193] units issued and outstanding (the “Units”). All Units outstanding reflect a unit consisting of one share of Common Stock and three-quarters of one redeemable Warrant to purchase Common Stock.
We have not declared or paid any cash dividends on our Common Stock and do not presently intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. The payment of dividends is subject to the discretion of the Company’s board of directors. Our board of directors bases its decisions regarding dividends on, among other things, general business conditions, our financial results, contractual, legal and regulatory restrictions regarding dividend payments and any other factors that the board may consider relevant.
Our Common Stock, Warrants and Units trade on NASDAQ under the symbols “PCT,” “PCTTW” and “PCTTU,” respectively.
Annual Stockholder Meetings
The Amended and Restated Bylaws provide that annual stockholder meetings will be held wholly or partially by means of remote communication or at such place, within or without the State of Delaware, on such date and at such time as may be determined by the Company’s board of directors, the Chief Executive Officer of the Company (the “Chief Executive Officer”) or the chairman of the board of directors of the Company (the “Chairman”) and as will be designated in the notice of the annual meeting.
Anti-Takeover Effects of the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws and Certain Provisions of Delaware Law
The Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws contain and the DGCL contains provisions, which are summarized in the following paragraphs, that are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of the Company’s board of directors. These provisions are intended to avoid costly takeover battles, reduce the Company’s vulnerability to a hostile change of control and enhance
the ability of the Company’s board of directors to maximize stockholder value in connection with any unsolicited offer to acquire the Company. However, these provisions may have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, deter or prevent a merger or acquisition of the Company by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or other takeover attempt that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the prevailing market price for the shares of the Company’s Common Stock held by stockholders.
Authorized but Unissued Capital Stock
Delaware law does not require stockholder approval for any issuance of authorized shares. However, the listing requirements of NASDAQ, which would apply if and so long as the Company’s Common Stock remains listed on NASDAQ, require stockholder approval of certain issuances equal to or exceeding 20% of the then outstanding voting power or then outstanding number of shares of common stock. Additional shares that may be used in the future may be issued for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings, to raise additional capital or to facilitate acquisitions.
The Company’s board of directors may generally issue preferred shares on terms calculated to discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of the Company or the removal of the Company’s management. Moreover, the Company’s authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock will be available for future issuances without stockholder approval and could be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future offerings to raise additional capital, to facilitate acquisitions and employee benefit plans.
One of the effects of the existence of unissued and unreserved common stock or preferred stock may be to enable the Company’s board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, which issuance could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of the Company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and thereby protect the continuity of the Company’s management and possibly deprive the Company’s stockholders of opportunities to sell their shares of the Company’s Common Stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.
Classified Board of Directors
The Company’s directors, other than those who may be elected by the holders of any future series of preferred stock, will be classified with respect to the time for which they severally hold office into three classes, as nearly equal in number as possible, designated Class I, Class II, and Class III, until the date (the “Sunset Date”) of the first annual meeting of the stockholders that is held after the fifth anniversary of the effectiveness of the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation. At any meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected prior to the Sunset Date, the number of directors elected may not exceed the greatest number of directors then in office in any class of directors. The directors first elected to Class I will hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2022; the directors first elected to Class II will hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2023; and the directors first elected to Class III will hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2024, with the members of each class to hold office until their successors are elected and qualified. At each succeeding annual meeting of the stockholders of the Company held prior to the Sunset Date, the successors to the class of directors whose term expires at that meeting will be elected by plurality vote of all votes cast at such meeting to hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of their election and until their successors are elected and qualified. All directors elected at annual meetings of stockholders held on or after the Sunset Date will be elected for terms expiring at the next annual meeting of stockholders and will not be subject to the classification provisions set forth above. Subject to the rights, if any, of the holders
of any future series of preferred stock to elect additional directors under circumstances specified in a Preferred Stock Designation, directors may be elected by the stockholders only at an annual meeting of stockholders.
Removal of Directors; Vacancies
Subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of any series of preferred stock to elect additional directors under circumstances specified in a Preferred Stock Designation and other than a ROCH Designated Director (as defined in the Investor Rights Agreement), who may be removed for any reason following the expiration of the Director Designation Period (as defined in the Investor Rights Agreement) with the approval of a majority of the directors of the Company (other than the ROCH Designated Directors), the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides that, until the Sunset Date, directors may be removed by the stockholders only for cause and following the Sunset Date, directors may be removed by the stockholders with or without cause, in each case, by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the outstanding voting stock, voting together as a single class, at any annual meeting or special meeting of the stockholders where the notice of which states that the removal of a director or directors is among the purposes of the meeting and identifies the director or directors proposed to be removed.
Subject to (a) the rights, if any, of the holders of any future series of preferred stock to elect additional directors under circumstances specified in a Preferred Stock Designation and (b) the Investor Rights Agreement, newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors and any vacancies on the board of directors resulting from death, resignation, disqualification, removal, or other cause will be filled solely by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors then in office, even though less than a quorum of the board of directors, or by a sole remaining director. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence will hold office for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the new directorship was created or the vacancy occurred (or, if such directorship was created or vacancy occurred after the Sunset Date, until the next annual meeting of stockholders) and until such director’s successor has been elected and qualified. No decrease in the number of directors constituting the board of directors may shorten the term of any incumbent director.
Special Stockholder Meetings
Subject to the rights of the holders of any future series of preferred stock, special meetings of stockholders may be called only (i) by the Chairman, (ii) by the Chief Executive Officer, or (iii) by the Secretary of the Company (the “Secretary”) acting at the request of the Chairman, the Chief Executive Officer or a majority of the total number of directors that the Company would have if there were no vacancies on its board of directors. At any annual meeting or special meeting of stockholders, only such business will be conducted or considered as has been brought before such meeting in the manner provided in the Amended and Restated Bylaws.
Requirements for Advance Notification of Director Nominations and Stockholder Proposals
The Amended and Restated Bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors. In order for any matter to be properly brought before a meeting, a stockholder will have to comply with advance notice requirements and provide the Company with certain information. Generally, to be timely, a stockholder’s notice relating to any nomination or other business to be brought before an annual meeting must be delivered to the Secretary at the Company’s principal executive offices not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary date of the immediately preceding annual meeting of stockholders.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the board of directors at the annual meeting is increased effective after the time period for which nominations would otherwise be due and there is no public announcement by the Company naming the nominees for the additional directorships at least 100 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice will also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for the additional directorships, if it will be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company not later than the close of business on the 10th day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Company.
To be timely, a stockholder’s notice relating to the nomination of a director to the Company’s board of directors to be brought before a special meeting, if permitted, will be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such special meeting or the 10th day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the board of directors to be elected at such meeting. The Amended and Restated Bylaws also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. Notwithstanding the foregoing notice requirements, the notice requirements will not apply to director nominations pursuant the Pure Crown Side Letter (as defined in the Amended and Restated Bylaws).
These notice provisions may defer, delay or discourage a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to influence or obtain control of the Company.
Consent of Stockholders in Lieu of Meeting
Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock, any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders may be taken only at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and may not be taken without a meeting by means of any consent in writing of such stockholder.
Dissenters’ Rights of Appraisal and Payment
Under the DGCL, with certain exceptions, the Company’s stockholders will have appraisal rights in connection with a merger or consolidation of the Company. Pursuant to the DGCL, stockholders who properly request and perfect appraisal rights in connection with such merger or consolidation will have the right to receive payment of the fair value of their shares as determined by the Delaware Court of Chancery.
Stockholders’ Derivative Actions
Under the DGCL, any of the Company’s stockholders may bring an action in the Company’s name to procure a judgment in the Company’s favor, also known as a derivative action, provided that the stockholder bringing the action is a holder of the Company’s shares at the time of the transaction to which the action relates or such stockholder’s stock thereafter devolved by operation of law.
Amendment of the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation
The Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides that the Company reserves the right at any time from time to time to amend, alter, change or repeal any provision contained in the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation. Notwithstanding any
inconsistent provision of the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or any provision of law that might otherwise permit a lesser vote or no vote, but in addition to any affirmative vote of the holders of any series of preferred stock required by law, (a) until the Sunset Date, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2∕3% of the voting power, and (b) following the Sunset Date, the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power, in the case of each of (a) and (b), of the outstanding capital stock entitled to vote, voting together as a single class, will be required to amend, alter, change or repeal, or adopt any provision inconsistent with, certain provisions, as noted in the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, or the definition of any capitalized terms used therein or any successor provision.
Amendment of the Amended and Restated Bylaws
The Amended and Restated Bylaws may be amended in any respect or repealed at any time, either (a) at any meeting of stockholders, provided that any amendment or supplement proposed to be acted upon at any such meeting has been properly described or referred to in the notice of such meeting, or (b) by the Company’s board of directors, provided that no amendment adopted by the board of directors may vary or conflict with any amendment adopted by the stockholders in accordance with the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and the Amended and Restated Bylaws. Notwithstanding the foregoing and anything contained in the Amended and Restated Bylaws, certain provisions of the Amended and Restated Bylaws may not be amended or repealed by the stockholders, and no provision inconsistent therewith may be adopted by the stockholders, without (a) until the Sunset Date, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2∕3% of the Company’s outstanding capital stock entitled to vote, voting together as a single class and (b) following the Sunset Date, the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the Company’s outstanding capital stock entitled to vote, voting together as a single class.
Exclusive Forum Selection
The Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides that, unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, (a) the Court of Chancery (the “Chancery Court”) of the State of Delaware (or, in the event that the Chancery Court does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) will, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action, suit or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action, suit or proceeding asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, employee or stockholder of the Company to the Company or to the Company’s stockholders, (iii) any action, suit or proceeding arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the Amended and Restated Bylaws or the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (as either may be amended and/or restated from time to time) or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Chancery Court, or (iv) any action, suit or proceeding asserting a claim against the Company governed by the internal affairs doctrine; and (b) subject to the preceding provisions, the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. If any action the subject matter of which is within the scope of clause (a) of the immediately preceding sentence is filed in a court other than the courts in the State of Delaware (a “Foreign Action”) in the name of any stockholder, such stockholder will be deemed to have consented to (1) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts in the State of Delaware in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the provisions of clause (a) of the immediately preceding sentence and (2) having service of process made upon such stockholder in any such action by service upon such stockholder’s counsel in the Foreign Action as agent for such stockholder. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in any security of the Company will be deemed to have notice of and consented to such provisions of the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act the
Exchange Act, or any other claim for which the federal courts of the United States have exclusive jurisdiction. Unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.
Limitations on Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors
The DGCL authorizes corporations to limit or eliminate the personal liability of directors to corporations and their stockholders for monetary damages for breaches of directors’ fiduciary duties, subject to certain exceptions. The Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation includes a provision that eliminates the personal liability of directors for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except to the extent such exemption from liability or limitation thereof is not permitted under the DGCL. The effect of these provisions is to eliminate the rights of the Company and its stockholders, through stockholders’ derivative suits on the Company’s behalf, to recover monetary damages from a director for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, including breaches resulting from grossly negligent behavior. However, exculpation does not apply to any director for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Company or its stockholders, or if the director has acted in bad faith, knowingly or intentionally violated the law, authorized illegal dividends or redemptions or derived an improper benefit from his or her actions as a director.
The Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides that the Company must indemnify and advance expenses to the Company’s directors and officers to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL. The Company also is expressly authorized to maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee or agent of the Company or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Company would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the DGCL. The Company believes that these indemnification and advancement provisions and insurance are useful to attract and retain qualified directors and executive officers.
The limitation of liability, advancement and indemnification provisions in the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against directors for breach of their fiduciary duty. These provisions also may have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise benefit the Company and its stockholders. In addition, your investment may be adversely affected to the extent the Company pays the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers pursuant to these indemnification provisions.